McMillan’s Tradition of Interactivity
User To User Interactivity
People can share or like content on The Australian Working Holiday global Facebook page. They can interact with each other through posts, videos and likes. An effective communication tool is through messaging.
User to Document Interactivity
How people interact with content and content creators’ documents and the creators of those documents (McMillan n.d).
This form of interaction is explored by the limited framework of the ‘feedback’ that receivers give to the senders of professionally prepared communication channels such as newspapers or newsletters.
In the campaign, users can subscribe to newsletters to receive news on what is happening around the country and how to apply for the best job in the world.
User to System Interactivity
Interactions between a user and different delivery platforms, the user-to-user tradition (Mahmoud & Auter 2009) focuses on human communication but readers responding to newspaper editors, while clearly part of the human communication tradition, also cross over into the user-to-documents literature that addresses how people interact with content and content creators. These three research traditions provide a basic framework for investigating of the past, present, and future of interactivity. While each tradition is treated separately, areas of overlap among these traditions will also be probed (McMillan, 2006). A system’s responsiveness results from selection options and modification options (Quiring & Schweiger 2008).
The system makes it easier for people to watch the campaign advertised for instance, on Vimeo. Applicants need to apply either online by submitting a short sixty second video of why they would want the best job in the world.
The campaign uses Facebook which allows users to interact with just a few keystrokes. A mainstay of its popularity for users has been the system which enables users to submit to the web site. There were 8 million website visits during the campaign according to the Vimeo website (2009).
The campaign went from having a simple hosting solution of one web server to a solution which included eleven servers and would have been able to host major news network websites (Tourism Queensland 2011)
During the six-week application time-frame, 34,684 people from almost 200 countries uploaded their video applications onto http://www.islandreefjob.com and Youtube, providing an independent promotion for the Great Barrier Reef and Queensland viewed by more than 8.6 million people.
Stromer-Galley’s types of interactivity
Interactivity as a process
– between people (unlikely online, but you may find evidence of F2F meeting arising from online)In observing interactivity between people, the focus is who is talking and what are they talking about? Is there exchange between sender and receiver or does the receiver respond? How are role, power, identity, ritual and other contextual factors negotiated? Is information exchanged and conflict managed, if so how? (CQ University 2013).
People were talking about the campaign even offline which allowed them to communicate online. Research showed that people communicated more depending on how strong their offline ties were. People who were already friends, or who had developed relationships with each other through work – communicated with each other more on these networks.
– between people through mediated channels
People interact with each other via a multi-faceted interaction menu, such as Facebook’s old Poke feature, posts” and communicate on Twitter.
“Two months later on 1 July 2009, Ben started his role as the Caretaker for the Islands of the Great Barrier Reef. During his stint he visited almost 100 Queensland destinations, fielded more than 450 media interviews and posted more than 60 blogs of 75,000 words, 2,000 photographs, 47 video diaries and more than 1,000 tweets.”
Interactivity may be a special case of mediated social interaction, as with online chat, discussion forums, or teleconferencing, but it can also take the form of impersonal interactions with media content or nonhuman agents—audio/video downloads, e-mail requests to a listserv majordomo, computer game playing, e-commerce transactions, and various other forms of content interactivity.
People discover new posts on Facebook and they quickly interact and links become embedded. During the campaign, participants posted images and videos or recorded short clips.
Interactivity as product
– between people and computers
The focus is on user interactions with technology through the use of mediation. The campaign creators observed and evaluated functionality and features (e.g., multimedia, click polls, hyperlinks, feedback forms) and how users engage those features. They might look at how technology is used to offer people choices and controls in achieving their objectives and also, at how technology may be clearly or secretly working to limit choice, force and direct their actions.
– between computers through software, hardware and networks
Recruitment was driven through online job sites and small display advertisements, the aim was to drive online traffic to the website islandreefjob.com. This website showed beautiful pictures of the area and Queensland and made job applicants post content promoting the region.
Over 475,000 votes for Wild Card applicants, web statistics were 8,465,280 unique visits, 55,002,415 page views with an 8.25 minute average time spent (Tourism Queensland 2011).
YouTube is the largest social media network in the world and it allowed Tourism Queensland to be more interactive with its potential markets. There were 34,684 one-minute video applications posted on YouTube from 200 countries.
Interactivity analysis according to Leontiev’s Action Theory hierarchy
The social networking sites used by the campaign were Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and Flickr. These social media sites allowed participants to express themselves faster, easier and have more fun. Participants were able to share the campaign and make comments and let their friends know about the campaign. Live and real time chatting is available as well.
According to Tourism Queensland (2011), the motive was to reach a target audience of “Global Experience Seekers” on a mass scale, drive them to a branded website and expose them to the unique beauty and experiences available on the Islands of the Great Barrier Reef.
The website to capture consumer interest on two levels; a) the primary motivation, job application or interest in applicants and b) engaging and inspirational content about the Islands of the Great Barrier Reef.
The objectives were set to drive:
14,000 video applicants
- Website visitation to 400,000
- News coverage in eight key international markets with the potential to visit Australia
- Travel industry recognition
- Mainstream media coverage
- Provide an opportunity for Australia’s international offices to engage local partners and trade in tactical or retail activity
- Use media and social networking to promote the campaign and increase awareness of the Islands of the great Barrier Reef and Queensland
- Content becoming viral
- Maximize market share
Actions are associated with goals but without activity is not meaningful. Actions are planned with specific goals and are not meaningful in themselves unless they are part of an activity.
The campaign was broadcasted on media outlets such as CNN, Oprah, ESPN Sports, Time magazine and used videos to attract applicants. It created a hype online through social media and online news and achieved 52,500,000 listings on Google search.
The campaign took further action through an advertising campaign such a mobile marketing campaign which was very effective in Singapore. PR practitioners got to work with its’ viral marketing and generated worldwide media attention.
Operations (routines and processes)
Social network systems analysis after Chan
Communication (opportunities to make ourselves understood).
As previously mentioned, the campaign used media and social networking to promote it, communicate and increase awareness of the Islands of the Great Barrier Reef and Queensland.
Interaction (catering for “dramatic performance of individuals”)
There is interaction between friends. Facebook and Twitter as they are able to express themselves and share posts they like or dislike and passionate about a topic without feeling constraint. The dramatic side to these social networking sites are that photos, videos, places and songs can all be shared between friends.
Social Media (built on relations among members)
The social media messages aim to create awareness to the campaign as well as creating excitement among people not just only participate in the competition, but also visit Queensland.
Mahmoud, AE, Auter, PJ, The Interactive Nature of Computer-Mediated Communication, American Communication Journal, Vol 11, No. 4, Winter 2009, viewed 12 August 2016, http://ac-journal.org/journal/2009/Winter/Articles/110401%20Interactive_Nature.pdf
Travel Queensland, Best Job in the World, (http://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/1089697/the-best-job-world—beyond-brave-new-marketing-world#qchIfUwUDFo7U1O4.99
Quiring, O, Schweiger 2008, Interactivity: A review of the concept and a framework for analysis, Communications 33, 147 – 167, https://core.ac.uk/download/files/454/19418316.pdf
Holmes, Dr A, 2013, DGTL12002 – Week 3, Working with Social Media 2014, CQUniversity Australia